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 by Custodio Mucavel

“The fish recognise me when I approach the ponds to feed them. They swim towards me because they aren't afraid. They know I'm their best friend", explained Tome Zacarias, a farmer in Chiongo, (about 40 kms from the town of Gondola), whose farm US Ambassador Lane visited on 10 December 2014.

Tome has been nurturing his passion for fish farming since 2003 when he first started with three small ponds. He farms tilapia and currently has five fish ponds of different sizes. They form part of his integrated farming business which includes maize, vegetables, fruits and farm animals.
During the one and a half hour visit with Ambassador Lane and his delegation which included journalists from six countries and representatives of the three UN Rome-based agencies, Tome talked about what had brought him to become passionate about fish farming, including how he had sourced his first fingerlings.

He also described how he selects the site where he digs his ponds, including the farming techniques he uses to assess the soil water holding capacity. He showed how he makes the fish feed from scraps from his farm produce – pumpkin, cassava and sweat potato leaves – supplemented by corn bran provided by the extension officers from the Mozambique National Institute for Aquaculture Development (INAQUA).

 ©PROAQUA
Since 2012, Tome has received support from a local INAQUA extension officer who has provided technical advice on the production cycle, timing and feeding, how to select where to locate the ponds and how to calculate the quantity of fish in each.

Tome is one of the beneficiaries from PROAQUA – a US$ 3,4 million regional project. Limited to a designated area of four neighbouring districts – Mossurize, Sussundenga, Gondola and Gorongosa – the project zone has abundant water resources with many rivers providing considerable potential for aquaculture.

Access to markets is good, with the project districts flanking either side of the Beira Corridor. The project responds to a request from the Government Of Mozambique (GoM) for support in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Financed by the European Union as part of the GoM's "Accelerating progress towards MDG1c in Mozambique" initiative, the programme was jointly implemented in 2013 by IFAD, FAO and WFP and will conclude in 2018.

The rationale for the project is based on the following:
(i) A high priority in the GoM's development strategy, the support for aquaculture is in line with the GoM's and IFAD’s policies particularly as there has been very limited investment in the sector, specifically in Manica and Sofala;
(ii) Aquaculture represents a major and relatively untapped potential for meeting the growing demand for fish in the country;
(iii) Aquaculture also represents an important means of diversifying the farming system that can enable farmers to spread risk; and
(iv) Given that most fish farmers are poor but able to invest in fish farming at minimal cost and with limited risk, thus improving the nutritional status of poor households, is further justification for investment.

The project aims to increase consumption and sales of fish by promoting small-scale fish farming in the project districts. PROAQUA tackles two key themes: food security and commercialization. The strategy recognizes the importance of current fish ponds to household food security and nutrition.
While there is considerable potential to increase the productivity of ponds, thereby generating income for households through sale of fish, it is recognized that the level of poverty of many households in the project zone means that addressing risk aversion is a key priority. This is reflected in the approach adopted by the project.

 ©PROAQUA

PROAQUA came into force in April 2014. The field visit to Tome's fish farm offered an opportunity to assess not only the current stage of aquaculture development in the country but the potential and the challenges that will be addressed by PROAQUA. These are mainly in the areas of (i) construction of new and better quality ponds; (ii) promotion of increased productivity of fish ponds by introducing improved pond management using predominantly on-farm  resources and minimizing purchased inputs for fish feed, in addition to an initial injection of quality fingerlings to maximize production potential; (iii) adoption of a household methodology approach – which will be linked to household mentoring – in order to maximize the participation of both women and men in the project; and (iv) use of a performance-based strategy linked to providing incentives in the contracts and involvement of extension staff.

Before visiting Tome's farm, Ambassador Lane met with the Gondola District Administrator, who presented a comprehensive overview of the district’s social and economic development, the ongoing food security and nutrition projects and programmes supported by the three UN Rome-based agencies as well as priority areas for consideration, should resources be made available in the future.
As part of the local tradition, Tome and his family offered Ambassador Lane and his entire delegation lunch prepared from their own produce including bananas and mangoes grown on the farm.

Ambassador Lane was visibly happy with the visit. He encouraged the PROAQUA managers, government representatives and extension officers to provide continued support to enterprising farmers like Tome and assist them in building capacity beyond subsistence to commercial production.
For Tome, who is considered a model farmer in the Chiongo region, hiring the labour to dig the ponds and feed the fish is one of the main challenges he faces.


by Marian Amaka Odenigbo

You will all agree that it still unacceptable that  today one in eight women and men still go to bed hungry and 8,000 children die daily from under nutrition despite the growing attention on gender and nutrition related issues in the agricultural development agenda.  As development practitioners we seek to address issues such as:

  • How do gender dynamics and decision-making relate to nutrition-sensitive behavior and outcomes in agricultural development programmes? 
  • What is the impact of empowerment on nutrition sensitive agriculture programmes? 
  • Does  Decision Making  always leads to Empowerment? and 
  • How can we continuously and systematically track impact of gender participation in agricultural development on nutrition? 

 What is paradoxical is that we actually know that gender dynamics often are closely linked to nutrition, but we  don’t necessarily always know how!

These concerns were the focus of a two and half day training workshop on gender and nutrition organized by the CGIAR cross-cutting research program (CRP) on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH). The event took place at Bioversity headquarters in Rome, Italy  on  2-4 December 2014. Participants from different sectors shared experiences on designing, implementing, and evaluating gender research analyzing how development activities have contributed to improved nutritional outcomes. I was happy to be invited in the capacity of one of the key partners who is working on implementing nutrition-sensitive agricultural projects.

Women's empowerment
Women's empowerment has been portrayed as a driver in agricultural development and innovation especially in poor rural setting. This is reflected in IFAD’s core business of investing in rural poor with an estimate of approximately 50 per cent of women targeted in our operations.

Empowering women involves multiple aspects such as decision-making power related to income, time, labor, assets, and knowledge or preferences of female community members. This implies women taking control over their lives, setting their agenda, gaining skills, self-confidence, self-reliance.

Hazel Malapit, the coordinator of A4NH gender strategy in IFPRI, gave an overview of the Women's Empowerment in the Agriculture Index (WEAI). WEAI is an index dedicated to measuring women’s empowerment in the agricultural sector. Laurie Starr (TANGO International) and Ana Paula de la O Campos (FAO) shared experiences in using and adapting WEAI were shared in project contexts. Beatrice Gerli, a member of IFAD gender team also added that IFAD has developed an adaption of the WEAI in its work and piloted it in Guatemala.

To understand the intricacy of women's empowerment Peter Davis, a specialist in qualitative and mixed-methods research delivered a presentation on empowerment ‘as a complex topic’.

Pathways to Nutrition
Further in this workshop, we discussed the “7 key pathways” through which agriculture is thought to influence nutrition.

These pathways were grouped into three key routes: 1) Food pro¬duction; which affects food availability, access and consumption of diverse foods and food consumption at household level; 2) Agricultural income; which influences expenditure on food, healthcare and non-food items; and 3) Women’s empowerment; which influences decision making power, caring capacity and practices, control of income and female energy expenditure.

Although these pathways are not always linear but they have become important guides for designing research and nutrition-sensitive agriculture projects. The last 3 pathways (5, 6 & 7) explicitly deal with women, but the gender role is important in each of the pathways outlined below:

As a matter of fact, empirical evidence suggests that empowering women improves nutrition for mothers, their children, and other household members and there is a close linkage between child stunting and maternal nutrition.

From a nutrition perceptive, the decision making process was viewed not just an outcome but rather underscoring the importance of joint-decision making between women and men.

Participants engaged in a brainstorming session on coming up with decision-making indicators to enhance their understanding of gender dynamic roles in agricultural interventions for nutrition and health.

Jessica Raneri, a nutrition specialist in Bioversity   talked about  adapting existing methodologies with a nutrition lens, thus ensuring nutrition-sensitive interventions. She proposed that  we reformulate existing questions and/or integrate additional questions on nutrition from a gender perspective to address gap in current methodology.

Gender norms integration (pink) into a vegetable and fruit project (green) in Zambia
 presented by Mwansa’s (Nutrition officer) and Steve (Gender officer)
Jody Harris, a Senior research analyst/nutritionist on A4NH in IFPRI, discussed the context specific linkages between agriculture and nutrition. She went further by stating that "quality of food and diet are key for measuring outcomes of agriculture for nutrition and health’. She also emphasised on the need for ‘do no harm’ indicator to measure the expected change in projects particularly on women’s time, care giving, programme participation.

It was quite interesting to see how gender mainstreaming can improve nutritional outcomes in Ag4NH programmes. While  at the same  time implementing agricultural development projects through a nutrition lens maximizes the gender norms.

This was reinforced  by an exclamation made by Mwansa at the end of an interactive brainstorming exercise – please see  the figure above:
          “Wow! Now it’s all making a whole lot of sense, Steve!!!

To wrap up the workshop, participants were tasked to identify available and missing resources to improve work on nutrition and gender. One of the challenges identified was creating a space to continue networking opportunities to link up gender and nutrition.  As a way forward, participants suggested to build a community of practice on gender and nutrition in order to continue the conversation.

This training workshop actually confirmed that integrating gender norms through a  nutrition lens will increase development impact and nutritional outcomes of programmes. It was an opportunity  to further our understanding of influential gender dynamics in nutrition sensitive agriculture interventions particularly for partners like IFAD where gender and nutrition are among our thematic corporate priorities.

Interested in  IFAD’s commitment to making its country programmes and projects nutrition- sensitive? Read our blogpost on Optimizing farmer’s contribution through better health and nutrition.


The 2014 Gender Awards and learning event

Posted by S.Sperandini Wednesday, December 17, 2014 0 comments

By Lorina Sthapit, Gender and M&E Junior Consultant, Nepal and PTA Gender Desk




The 2014 Gender Awards Ceremony was organized at IFAD Headquarters in Rome on 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. The Awards, initiated in 2013, spotlight one programme or project per region that has used innovative approaches to address gender inequalities and empower women.

During the event, the representatives from the winning projects in Ecuador, Pakistan, Rwanda and Yemen discussed their achievements and the challenges they faced in promoting gender equality and empowering women. The award for Sierra Leone was accepted by the Deputy Minister of Agriculture Ms. Marie Jolloh. For further details about the winning projects, click here Brochure.
The occasion was also an opportunity to learn about household methodologies, an innovative set of approaches piloted by IFAD and partners. With the support of supplementary funds from the Government of Japan, IFAD has worked with field practitioners to consolidate experiences on household methodologies across sub-Saharan Africa into an Household Methodologies Toolkit.


The event concluded with a statement by the Vice President about the relevance of ending violence against women for food security, poverty reduction and rural development.
Here are the links to Storify, Photos and Video recording from the Awards Ceremony.
Click here for more information on IFAD Gender Awards 2014.
Representatives from the winning projects

A learning event in the afternoon provided an opportunity for the project representatives to exchange their invaluable experiences and ideas among like-minded practitioners.
The representatives from the Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (implementing partner)- Mr. Isa Qazi Azmat, ChiefExecutive Officer; Ms. Samia Liaquat, Group Head for Compliance and Quality Assurance; and Mr. Yasir Ashfaq, Group Head for Financial Services - highlighted the importance of developing project activities and products specifically suited to the needs of the rural poor women and ultra-poor households.
PRISM is one of the flag bearers for investing in women’s access to microfinance and women-led value chains in the country. The project has supported almost 140,000 women borrowers for income generating enterprises. This is a significant achievement in a country where the number of women who benefit from microfinance loans is traditionally very low and where women-centric microfinance programmes are often questioned. PRISM has challenged those barriers and lived up to project values that “development is about changing the status quo”.
The success of any project, they emphasized, lies in “starting small, committing to bring social transformation, learning from failures and rekindling the motivation of all staff”. Learning from one of their initial shortfalls during the baseline survey, they included several gender-related indicators in the impact survey to capture improvements in gender equality and women’s empowerment. They recognised, while challenging, it is important to do more to be able to tell women’s stories.
Mr. Abdulla Salem Al-Dogail, Project Director and Ms. Fatima Al-Lahabi, Gender and Microfinance Specialist felt immense pride as well as a sense of responsibility when the project beneficiaries said, “you are the first ones to come to us”. Being the first to intervene in Al-Dhala, one of the poorest and most remote governorates in Yemen. They credited their dynamic and motivated team that, despite the physical and social complexity of Al-Dhala, were able to successfully implement project activities. The team conducted situational analyses and initiated various activities targeting women. They addressed women’s basic needs first by freeing their time from collecting water and firewood. They progressed to literacy classes, health and nutrition training, kitchen gardening and other income generating activities. When required, the project team divided into women-only and men-only groups to address sensitive gender-specific issues, issues that would otherwise not surface in a mixed group. These initiatives have significantly contributed to women's inclusion and the empowerment agenda in the communities.
Another major factor contributing to their project success was using an effective communication strategy which was implemented by local women who were able to build trust with other women in the villages. Action plans were developed together with women and men from the community using participatory processes. In addition, separate training sessions for women were led by female facilitators because this gave rural women the confidence to participate more actively and to voice their concerns more comfortably.
Mr. Janvier Gasasira, Single Project Implementation Unit (SPIU) Coordinator, and Mr. Raymond Kamwe, M&E specialist and gender focal person explained the role of community innovation centres (CIC) in devising strategies to communicate and reach out to rural women. The work of these CICs does not stop at providing technical and organizational support to small farmers, they also conduct awareness raising programmes on gender-based violence.
KWAMP through their CICs, came up with an ingenious idea of the 'women's evenings'. It is a forum where village women meet on a regular basis to talk about any violence and other social issues that require peer counselling and/or help. Men are invited to attend. The forum has encouraged many local women to discuss and report cases of violence. A gender desk has been established at the local police station so that women who have been abused can talk to policewomen.
Mr. Luis Heredia, Project Coordinator and Ms. Consuelo Aguinaga, Gender specialist emphasised that the success of any project lies in ensuring equal and democratic participation of women in all project activities and decision-making processes. Often it is only at the implementation stage that women’s participation is taken into consideration but to ensure that the project is inclusive of women’s special needs, it is essential to assure women’s meaningful participation from the planning stage.
In addition, the importance of allocating sufficient resources for gender-related activities during Annual Work Plan and Budget was highlighted. This is often overlooked but project gender strategies should be reflected in the budget, reserving resources to support gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment.
Mr. Hubert Boirard, former country programme manager in Sierra Leone, talked about the origins of a successful project. While a sound design lays the foundation, most of a project’s success can be attributed to implementation. Flexibility at the mid-term review is crucial. For example, the Gender Action Learning System (GALS) was added by project staff during implementation because they were convinced of the positive impact it had on gender relations at the household level.

AgTalks: How fertilisers can improve smallholder farmers lives

Posted by Francesco Farnè Tuesday, December 16, 2014 0 comments

Written by Francesco Far


If you don’t know about AgTalks, you are missing a riveting new series of events organised by IFAD with the aim of presenting the human face of family farming by sharing the latest policy and innovation research findings, as well as different viewpoints on smallholder farming.

Through the series we are putting forward the latest thinking, trends and research on policies and innovations in small-scale family farming.

As you may know, the UN has declared 2015 the International Year of Soils. And earlier in the month, on the eve of the World Soil Day, we at IFAD had the honour and pleasure to host the launch of the Montpellier Panel report "No Ordinary Matter: conserving, restoring and enhancing Africa’s soils".

As the International Year of Family Farming comes to an end and we embark to celebrate the International Years of Soils, on 11 December, we hosted the second session of Agtalks which focused on the topic of soils, fertilisers and their relations with smallholder family farms.

 ©IFAD/Giulio Napolitano
This session brought together  three experts in field of fertilisers working with smallholder farmers:  Nicole M. Mason, Assistant Professor in the Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics at Michigan State University (MSU); Kari Niedfeldt-Thomas, Senior Manager, Social Responsibility, and Executive Director, The Mosaic Company Foundation at The Mosaic Company; and Pablo Tittonell, professor of the Farming Systems Ecology group at Wageningen University.

Dr Mason talked about the importance of fertilisers for Africa. She painted a vivid picture of two Zambian farmers, Bernard and Matimaba–one whose farm had government funded fertiliser subsidies and the other who did not. This was how she introduced the audience to the current African policies on fertilisers, underlining their weaknesses and contradictions and supporting her thesis through many other smallholder farmers’ stories from her personal experience in Africa. She talked about the importance of putting in place  efficient policies as the way to take smallholder families out of poverty and ensure food security.

©IFAD/Giulio Napolitano
Ms Niedfeldt-Thomas pointed out in her intervention that access to crop nutrients and training in their use have a tremendous potential for improvements in smallholders’ lives. Through examples from her experience in India, Guatemala and Africa she highlighted how agronomic knowledge can bring higher yields, which means higher income and steps towards food security.

Mr Tittonell focused his intervention on soil and its organic matter. Soil organic matter is only 5% of the soil, but it makes the difference between an arid sand desert and a fertile valley. To underline this, he showed the audience some soils samples, explaining the characteristics of a healthy soil. He also talked about why it is crucial to preserve organic matter through conservation practices in agriculture (e.g. avoiding soil tillage; preserving permanent soil cover; favouring crop diversification). Conservation agriculture plays an important role in preserving soil from degradation, but, even though some evidence shows that it can help, restoring soil organic matter in deteriorated lands remains an open question.

©IFAD/Giulio Napolitano
After their interventions, the three experts engaged in a panel discussion and answered questions from the floor. One of the points raised during the discussion was about the definition of fertilisers. Some of the audience was under the impression that the speakers neglected organic fertilisers, focusing only on industrial ones. All three speakers agreed that fertilisers are not only mineral, but also organic and their properties are the same. So, their integrated use is fundamental in addressing the issue of soil fertility.

The second session of AgTalks session raised issues such as the need for a holistic and long term approach. And it made a positive contribution to the debate on such issues, presenting  a unique opportunity to make the necessary linkages  between smallholder farmers and soil preservation.

How to make a difference through climate change education and training

Posted by Beate Stalsett Friday, December 12, 2014 0 comments

As appeared on UN:CC learn

8 December 2014, Lima, Peru. An unusual side event at the annual Climate Conference in Lima (COP 20) provided a snapshot of what the United Nations is doing to support climate change education and training for children, youth and adults. Panellists and participants discussed how learning can actually ‘make a difference’ on the ground as well as the role of formal, non-formal and informal approaches. The audience also actively engaged in a game on climate risk management animated by the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre (RCCC). The event was hosted by UNEP, UNITAR, UNESCO, UNICEF, FAO, and IFAD in collaboration with YOUNGO. It was moderated by Mr. Daniel Abreu, National UN CC:Learn Focal Point at the National Climate Change Council (CNCCMDL) of the Dominican Republic.



The event was opened with a photo series featuring “Voices from the COP” on why education and training is important, collected by YOUNGO. ©UNCC:Learn

In his welcome remarks, Mr. Angus Mackay, Manager at UNITAR’s Climate Change Programme pointed out that funding and programmes on sustainability issues is at an ‘all time high’ and that especially young people have never been so aware of sustainability issues. “However, actual behaviour change is not following automatically. We need to make sure that programmes actually lead to measurable results, including effective monitoring and evaluation,” he said, referring to a recent publication by FAO (“Making It Count: Increasing the Impact of Climate Change and Food Security Education Programmes”). The event featured three case examples illustrating UN projects and programmes for different age groups: beginning with climate change education for children; to empowering youth to take action on climate change; to professional training for adults. Ms. Mariana Alcalay, Education Project Officer at the UNESCO Office in Brazil introduced a pilot project for training teachers on climate change education for sustainable development in the State of Santa Catarina. Ms. Alcalay highlighted that as a result of the programme children are not only showing keen interest in climate change related issues, but are also taking the message out to their communities.

Mr. Brighton Kaoma from Zambia, who connected via Skype, talked about a youth movement that has been inspired by the UNICEF-supported Unite4Climate programme. Mr. Kaoma underlined that “Unite4Climate aims to inspire the leadership aspect that’s embedded in every young person.” In Zambia alone, over 1,000 youth have been trained on locally relevant solutions to address climate change and environmental problems.

Mr. Naysan Sahba, Director of UNEP's Division of Communications and Public Information, presented the Partnership for Environment and Disaster Risk Reduction (PEDRR) which offers a range of training activities for professionals, including national courses and regional train-the-trainer workshops. The latest learning activity offered by PEDRR is a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on ecosystem-based solutions for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Mr. Sahba announced that “our target is to reach out to 1 million people over the next five years.”

One UN for education and training: Ms. Amrei Horstbrink, UNITAR; Mr. Naysan Sahba and Ms. Fanina Kodre UNEP; Mr. Angus Mackay, UNITAR; Mr. Daniel Abreu, Dominican Republic; Mr. Maarten Van Aalst, Red Cross; Ms. Ilaria Firmian, IFAD; Mr. Alex Heikens and Ms. Cristina Colon, UNICEF; Mr. Sessa Reuben, FAO; and Ms. Mariana Alcalay and Ms. Julia Heiss, UNESCO (from left to right). ©UNCC:Learn

The highlight of the event was a climate risk management game that involved the entire audience in an active exercise on decision-making under time pressure. Participants were asked to split up in groups and decide on whether to invest in flood protection or not. A die was thrown to determine whether a flood happened (number 6) or not (numbers 1-5). “To illustrate the effect of climate change, we change to a different die with higher probabilities of throwing a six, meaning a flood,” Mr. Maarten Van Aalst, Director of the RCCC, explained. “We have played this game in various settings, including the White House. For the IPCC authors we asked them to use their own report to inform their decision-making. Made them think quite a bit…”, Mr. Van Aalst jokingly said.

The game has been also used in the framework of IFAD’s Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture (ASAP) projects. “Traditional training approaches don’t always work at the community level. We need to break down complex concepts such as climate risk management and make them relevant to local planning contexts”, Ms. Ilaria Firmian from IFAD highlighted. “The game is not only fun, but speeds up learning, dialogue and action on climate risks.”

©UNCC:Learn

Mr. Daniel Abreu summarized the discussions by pointing to the importance of results-based training, the role of non-formal education in reaching out to people that are not part of the formal education system, and the need for life-long learning on climate change issues. “This is actually the approach we are taking in the Dominican Republic”, Mr. Abreu pointed out. “In our national climate change learning strategy we have set out a vision of strengthening climate change education at all levels, from schools, to universities, to professional training centers, but also working with civil society and the media,” he said. “This approach is relevant not only for developing, but also for developed countries!”

Examples of UN initiatives and resources for climate change education and training
The One UN Climate Change Learning Partnership (UN CC:Learn)
Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development (CCESD)
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on Ecosystem-Based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation
FAO Food Security and Climate Change Challenge Badge
IFAD e-Learning Course on Smallholder Agriculture, Environment and Climate Change
UNICEF Unite4Climate Zambia
IFRC/Red Cross Red Crescent games on climate risk management

Rural transformation needs holistic approaches?

Posted by Susan Beccio Wednesday, December 10, 2014 1 comments

By Anura Herath

I have had the “golden opportunity” to listen to a great keynote speech delivered by Professor M S Swaminathan, one of the world authorities in rice breeding research. He spoke at the Regional Workshop organised by IFAD’s Asia and the Pacific Division in Siem Reap, Cambodia on 2 - 4 December 2014. The theme of the workshop was “Transforming Rural Areas: Strategic Visions for Asia and the Pacific”. The workshop was opened by His Excellency the Prime Minister HE Hun Sen of the Royal Government of Cambodia.

Professor Swaminathan shared the wealth of his experiences that span over a period of six decades. Many elements resonated with me as potential solutions to key challenges of transforming rural areas. Hun Sen touched on all of the key challenges .


Professor Swaminathan delivering key note address at the Asia and Pacific Regional Workshop in Siem Reap, Cambodia.  ©IFAD/Kimlong Meng

















The greatest challenge as both orators eloquently presented to us is that the world will need 50% more grains by 2030. This grain will need to be produced with almost 30% less arable land. Asia and the Pacific region will take on at least 2/3 of this burden. It will effect the food security of rural poor people unless the challenge is systematically addressed and solutions are found. Food production will become more difficult with degraded soil, depleted natural resources, and demographic changes that are taking place through rural - urban migration.

I take Professor Swaminathan’s words as a set of guiding principles to facilitate rural transformation. There was one underlining theme that ran throughout his speech - a series of holistic approaches are necessary to drive rural transformation. Approaches such as an evergreen revolution - including organic, green and climate smart agriculture and opportunities for market driven non-farm employment both entail multipronged strategies. On the agricultural front, it is the norm rather than exceptions.

Managing five key areas -  namely soil, water, technology, credit with insurance, and remunerative markets to increase farm production, as Swaminathan reiterated, would be fundamental in agrarian transformation. A prototype of such integration is the bio-village model of sustainable food and livelihood security. This model addresses both on-farm and off-farm development while keeping the focus on natural resource conservation and enhancement. These are imbedded in the holistic approach to rural development.

Many of the IFAD projects that I know of, especially the ones that have been designed during the last 10 years have the potential to take this holistic approach on board. Examples can be found in Sri Lanka, Philippines, India, and Bangladesh. The Dry Zone Livelihood Development Project in Sri Lanka and Northern Mindanao Community Initiatives and Resource Management Project in the Philippines for instance have had activities to cover all five key areas listed above.

One can find many of such projects if one looks at the records. Of course these projects had an element of complexity in the design which in some cases brought about implementation difficulties while others did well. Lately, the IFAD project designs have taken a different approach. Simplicity in design has been emphasised and as a result at least the designs that I have had a chance to look at have lost the spirit of the holistic approach. Particularly the designs with a value chain focus have dominating features of the commodity approach. A debate that I would like to initiate here, before losing the echo of Professor Swaminathan’s words, is the importance of bringing the holistic approach, at least to some extent, into the IFAD project designs.

We can look for a fine balance between simplicity – which means having two, or maximum three components in a design - and the essential interventions in a particular target area that are needed to attain the transformation.  Encouraging partnerships, which was one of the main discussion points of the workshop, provides an opportunity to integrate  the holistic approach.

Issues regarding responsibility and accountability of implementing partnership arrangements and activities therein are a concern, particularly when such activities are critical to achieving total progress. It is therefore essential, in my view, that serious discussions be held and important commitments from other parties be included in agreements, perhaps including the project loan agreement, if IFAD depends on partnership arrangements. This applies to those that are offered by the respective government institutions.

Another option would be to identify critical activities of an ongoing result chain that provide an opportunity for IFAD to intervene effectively. The process requires research beyond the Country Strategies and Opportunities Programme (COSOP), area targeting and scoping which is more than alignment and harmonization with government policies, and critical path analyses with holistic approach in mind in project designing. We need to discuss whether we respect such approaches seriously in the designing process of projects. There may be other options and approaches. The purpose of this blog is to open up the discussion and to take maximum advantage of deliberations that we had in Siem Reap, Cambodia.


Anura Herath, IFAD Country Programme Officer, Sri Lanka

At the COP20 UN climate summit. ©IFAD
Written by Chris Neglia

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in Article 2, clearly identifies the importance of achieving food security under a changing climate. At a Davos-style discussion at COP20 in Lima, a panel of experts presented their views on how this goal could be met.

Julie Lennox of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) reminded the audience that when referring to food security, we are not just talking about agriculture, but the entire mosaic of rural land use that humans rely on for the provision of sufficient, safe and nutritious food. When working to achieve global food security, she urged the UNFCCC process to look beyond agricultural sectors and take a system-wide view – likening the scope of change needed in food production to the industrial revolution that transformed Europe in the late 19th century.

IFAD’s Gernot Laganda warned of potential tipping points that could seriously challenge food systems in developing countries without a strong commitment to climate adaptation by the international community. Similarly, Alexandre Meybeck of the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated that while no more than a 2 degree Celsius rise in the global average temperature is the goal set by the Convention, this also translates to a 4 degree rise on continents and upwards of a 6 degree rise in arid environments. Under these conditions, it is hard to imagine how small farms can be self-sufficient in many of the most vulnerable areas, he said.

Despite the dire forecasts, the panellists advocated for strong collaboration and partnerships involving the public and private sector actors, centred around smallholder farmers who must be the agents of change in the shift toward a more sustainable food paradigm.

Jethro Greene, Chief Coordinator of the Caribbean Farmers Network and also affiliated with the World Farmers Organization, said that although smallholders practice some of the most efficient farming methods, they are often stigmatized as unproductive or merely recipients of handouts.

“Smallholders are entrepreneurs,” said Greene, “and they need support in order to cluster into more powerful economic groups.”

This model is already working in the Caribbean, where the private sector prefers to source food products from small, local producers. But smallholders need to be seen as small businesses to be attractive to large buyers.

Greene challenged the Rome-based UN food and agriculture agencies to come out of their silos and bring smallholder solutions to large financiers (eliciting great applause from the audience).

Richard Choularton of the World Food Programme (WFP) acknowledged the tendency for project planning and financial rules to be inflexible once set. However, he said, WFP addresses this challenge by setting project design at the local level.

Meybeck of FAO also referred to fora that bring together multiple stakeholders such as the Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture, where the Rome-based agencies strive to respond to climate and environment problems as one entity.

The face-off between panellists made for a lively discussion, with quality interventions from the floor. When Thomson Reuters’ Alexander Doyle, who moderated the event, asked whether Greene was satisfied with the responses given by the Rome-based agencies, he simply smiled and said, “It’s a start.”